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音频杂志:Puppets 木偶

英国使馆文明教育处 2019-06-20 16:09

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By Linda Baxter 琳达.巴克斯特著

 

 


Watch a group of children playing with their toys. At first they might be happy to put the plastic animals in their cages at the zoo and take them out again, or dress the dolls in different clothes, but after a while things get a bit boring. So the toys will be moved across the floor as if they had real legs, the animals will start to speak to each other and the dolls will pay visits to each other's houses and talk about what they've been doing today, all in slightly different voices of course. It seems that the impulse to make inanimate figures move and talk is a very natural one, and, of course, that's exactly what puppets are all about. And that's probably why they've existed for thousands of years - and are known to children and adults all over the world.
假如咱们调查一群孩子玩玩具,一开端他们或许会很高兴,把塑料动物放到动物园的笼子里,再拿出来,又或许给公仔穿上不同的衣服,可是一瞬间往后,这些就显得有点无聊。玩具们好像长出了腿,会从地板的一边溜到到另一边,动物开端谈天,公仔们会相互访问,议论他们今天都在做什么,当然他们的声响听起来都不大相同。促进无生命的概括能动会说的动机好像很天然,当然,这切当来讲,也便是木偶。这很或许便是木偶存在了几千年,被全球的小孩子和大人所熟知的原因。

 

The basic types 基本款


Shadow puppets are one-dimensional silhouettes which move against a light background so that they can be clearly seen by the audience. They usually have moveable arms and legs which the puppeteer controls. These ancient puppets still survive in some parts of the world, for example, the leather puppets of India and the Javanese Wayang Kulit.
皮影木偶是一维的概括,观众能很明晰地观赏到经过灯火投射到幕布上的皮影。皮影戏木偶一般都有可活动的手臂和双腿,可被皮影演员控制。这些陈旧的木偶依然存在,例如印度的皮革木偶以及爪哇的皮影戏。


Rod puppets are three-dimensional figures controlled by pieces of wood or bamboo attached to different parts of their bodies. The simplest form, and one of the earliest, is just a head on a stick - an early form of doll. But more sophisticated versions have many moveable body parts and can be moved in a very realistic way. Once again, Java has probably the most famous rod puppets in the world - the Wayang Golek.
拉杆木偶是三维的人物概括,它是由粘附在木偶身体上不同部位的几片木材或竹子控制的。最简略也是最前期的方法,仅仅是木棍上的一个头罢了——玩偶的前身。比较复杂的版别会有许多可移动的身体部位,栩栩如生。爪哇岛或许有着世界上最有名的木偶——傀儡戏。


As the name suggests, string puppets (or marionettes) are three dimensional figures controlled by strings. The standard puppet has strings attached to its arms, legs, shoulders, back and head. These are attached to a cross of wood which the puppeteer holds in one hand while moving individual strings with the other. Different versions of string puppets are found all over the world.
如名所示,提线木偶(或牵线木偶)是经过线丝控制的三维人物概括。规范的木偶的手臂,大腿,膀子,背部和头部是系有线丝的。这些丝线穿插在木材上面,木偶演员一手握紧,另一只手移动个别线丝。在全球各地,可以找到不同版别的提线木偶。


Hand puppets (also known as glove puppets) are three-dimensional figures which are usually made of cloth and worn on the puppeteer's hand or arm. They are probably the most common form of puppet all over the world because they are easy to make and to manipulate. The famous Punch and Judy puppets, which every British adult remembers from childhood days at the seaside, are glove puppets.
布袋木偶(也叫手套木偶)是由布料做成的三维人物,木偶演员把布袋木偶套在手掌和手臂上。布袋木偶很或许是全世界最常见的木偶款式,由于布袋木偶制造简略,也简单控制。每一个英国成年人,从孩儿年代在海滨就紧记的闻名木偶,潘趣和朱迪,也是手套木偶。


How they developed 木偶怎么开展演化


Very little is known about the origins of puppets. Puppets have been found in ancient Egyptian and Chinese sites and puppets were mentioned by Plato and Aristotle but we have no details about how they were used. All we know is that different cultures had them and they developed in different ways.
关于木偶的来历所知甚少。古埃及和古我国的一些遗址曾发现过木偶,柏拉图和亚里士多德也提及过木偶,可是关于木偶怎么被运用,暂未找到详细资料。已知的是,不同的文明都有木偶的存在,而木偶也以不同的方法开展演化。


The earliest puppets were probably simple shadow puppets. Later, when rods were added to give more control to the silhouettes, the three-dimensional rod puppets developed and then the types that we know today.
最早的木偶很或许是皮影戏。之后,拉杆投入运用以便可以更好控制木偶外形,三维的拉杆木偶就开展演化了,然后就有了咱们今天所熟知的各种木偶。


In Britain, string puppets became very popular in the Middle Ages, when they were used in church services to illustrate Bible stories, such as the birth of Christ. It's possible that the word 'marionette' (which means 'little Mary') comes from this time. The puppet shows slowly moved out of the churches and into the streets and by the sixteenth century there were puppet theatres at every country fair. The shows were popular entertainment and were often very rude and satirical.
在中世纪的英国,提线木偶盛行开来。教堂服务运用提线木偶解说圣经故事,例如基督的诞生。词语“牵线木偶”(意为小玛丽)或许是来自于这个年代。到了16世纪,木偶扮演慢慢地走出教堂,来到街头巷尾,每一个村庄的庙会上都会有木偶戏院。其时这些木偶扮演是大众化的文娱,常常都是很粗鄙并带有挖苦意味的。


Punch and Judy arrived at this time from Italy. The puppets were marionettes but by the nineteenth century they had became glove puppets because they were cheaper to make and easier to transport and manipulate.
与此同时,潘趣和朱迪从意大利过来了。他们本是牵线木偶,但在19世纪,它们现已演化成手套木偶,由于手套木偶制造愈加廉价,并且更简单移动和控制。


Puppets today 今天的木偶


Nowadays in Britain puppets are usually associated with children's entertainment but they still survive as an adult art form in many countries, particularly in the East. One of the most important uses of puppets today is in education for children and adults alike. Traditional puppet shows are a good way of exploring sensitive issues such as sex education or AIDS awareness which people may be embarrassed to discuss openly. They are widely used in therapy too. A child who doesn't want to talk about the terrible thing that happened to him is often happy to act out the scene using puppets.
现在,在英国,木偶一般是跟孩子们的文娱联络在一起,可是在许多国家,它们依然以一种成人艺术的方法存活下去,特别是在东方。木偶最重要的用处之一便是在孩子和成人的教育上。传统的木偶扮演是探求灵敏问题的一种好办法,例如那些人们揭露讨论会比较为难的性教育或许对艾滋病的知道。木偶也被广泛应用于心理治疗。一个不肯议论从前发生在自己身上的恐惧作业的孩子,常常都会很愿意用木偶来演绎其时的场景。


And of course, on a lighter note, let's not forget the new generations of puppets that television has brought us through the years, from the old classics like Thunderbirds, to Kermit and Miss Piggy of the Muppets, and the satire of Spitting Image. It really does seem that puppets are not just for children.
当然,还有一点要注意的,别忘记多年来在电视上陪同咱们的新一代木偶,从传统的雷鸟,到克米特和布偶的小猪小姐,还有同模形象的挖苦。木偶好像还真的不仅仅是归于小孩子的。

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